The following is a list of references that the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment use in their scientific literature review of marijuana-related health effects that drive the recommendations in the Retail Marijuana Education Program. MEI used this data and research as a resource to develop all elements of the curricula.
Pope, H.G., Jr., et al., Early-onset cannabis use and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of the association? Drug Alcohol Depend, 2003. 69(3): p. 303-10.
Bolla, K.I., et al., Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology, 59(9): p. 1337-43.
Medina, K.L., et al., Neuropsychological functioning in adolescent marijuana users: subtle deficits detectable after a month of abstinence. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 2007.13(5): p. 807-20.
Hooper, S.R., D. Woolley, and M.D. De Bellis, Intellectual, neurocognitive, and academic achievement in abstinent adolescents with cannabis use disorder.
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2014. 231(8): p. 1467-77.
Fried, P.A., B. Watkinson, and R. Gray, Neurocognitive consequences of marihuana–a comparison with pre-drug performance. Neurotoxicol Teratol, 2005. 27(2): p. 231-9.
Meier, M.H., et al., Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2012. 109(40): p. E2657-64.
Fried, P., et al., Current and former marijuana use: preliminary findings of a longitudinal study of effects on IQ in young adults. Cmaj, 2002. 166(7): p. 887-91.
Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood, and A.L. Beautrais, Cannabis and educational achievement. Addiction, 2003. 98(12): p. 1681-92.
Lynne-Landsman, S.D., C.P. Bradshaw, and N.S. Ialongo, Testing a developmental cascade model of adolescent substance use trajectories and young adult adjustment.
Dev Psychopathol, 2010. 22(4): p. 933-48.
Brook, J.S., E.B. Balka, and M. Whiteman, The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J Public Health, 1999. 89(10): p. 1549-54.
Swift, W., et al., Cannabis and progression to other substance use in young adults: findings from a 13-year prospective population-based study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 2012. 66(7): p. e26.
Fergusson, D.M., J.M. Boden, and L.J. Horwood, Cannabis use and other illicit drug use: testing the cannabis gateway hypothesis. Addiction, 2006. 101(4): p. 556-69.
Schepis, T.S. and S. Krishnan-Sarin, Characterizing adolescent prescription misusers: a population-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2008. 47(7): p. 745-54.
Monitoring Health Concerns Related to Marijuana in Colorado: 2014 101
Marijuana Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults
Fiellin, L.E., et al., Previous use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana and subsequent abuse of prescription opioids in young adults. J Adolesc Health, 2013. 52(2): p. 158-63.
Nakawaki, B. and W.D. Crano, Predicting adolescents’ persistence, non-persistence,and recent onset of nonmedical use of opioids and stimulants. Addict Behav, 2012. 37(6): p. 716-21.
Moss, H.B., C.M. Chen, and H.Y. Yi, Early adolescent patterns of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana polysubstance use and young adult substance use outcomes in a nationally representative sample. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2014. 136: p. 51-62.
Miettunen, J., et al., Longitudinal associations between childhood and adulthood externalizing and internalizing psychopathology and adolescent substance use. Psychol Med, 2013: p. 1-12.
Degenhardt, L., et al., The persistence of the association between adolescent cannabis use and common mental disorders into young adulthood. Addiction, 2013. 108(1): p. 124-33.
Horwood, L.J., et al., Cannabis and depression: an integrative data analysis of four Australasian cohorts. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2012. 126(3): p. 369-78.
Arseneault, L., et al., Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence. Br J Psychiatry, 2004. 184: p. 110-7.
Pahl, K., J.S. Brook, and J. Koppel, Trajectories of marijuana use and psychological adjustment among urban African American and Puerto Rican women. Psychol Med, 2011. 41(8): p. 1775-83.
Rasic, D., et al., Longitudinal associations of cannabis and illicit drug use with depression, suicidal ideation and suicidal attempts among Nova Scotia high school students. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2013. 129(1-2): p. 49-53.
Spears, M., et al., Factors associated with the development of self-harm amongst a socio-economically deprived cohort of adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2014. 49(4): p. 629-37.
Fergusson, D.M., L.J. Horwood, and E.M. Ridder, Tests of causal linkages between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms. Addiction, 2005. 100(3): p. 354-66. Zammit, S., et al., Self reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study. Bmj, 2002. 325(7374): p. 1199. van Os, J., et al., Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study. Am J Epidemiol, 2002. 156(4): p. 319-27.
Kuepper, R., et al., Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study. Bmj, 2011. 342: p. d738.
Henquet, C., et al., Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people. Bmj, 2005. 330(7481): p. 11.
Pope, H.G., et al., Neuropsychological Performance in Long-term Cannabis Users.
Archives of General Psychiatry, 2001. 58(10): p. 909-909.
Solowij, N., et al., Cognitive Functioning of Long-term Heavy Cannabis Users Seeking Treatment. JAMA, 2002. 287(9): p. 1123-1131.
Bolla, K.I., et al., Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology, 2002. 59(9): p. 1337-43.
Roebke, P.V., et al., Verbal learning in marijuana users seeking treatment: a comparison between depressed and non-depressed samples. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2014: p. 1-6.
Thames, A.D., N. Arbid, and P. Sayegh, Cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical sample of users. Addict Behav, 2014. 39(5): p. 994-9.
Sanchez-Torres, A.M., et al., Lifetime cannabis use and cognition in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their unaffected siblings. European Archives of
Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 2013. 263(8): p. 643-653.
Rodgers, J., et al., Differential effects of Ecstasy and cannabis on self-reports of memory ability: a web-based study. Hum Psychopharmacol, 2001. 16(8): p. 619-625.
Tamm, L., et al., Impact of ADHD and cannabis use on executive functioning in young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend, 2013. 133(2): p. 607-14.
D’Souza, D.C., et al., The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: implications for psychosis.
Neuropsychopharmacology, 2004. 29(8): p. 1558-72.
Morrison, P.D., et al., The acute effects of synthetic intravenous Delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol on psychosis, mood and cognitive functioning. Psychol Med, 2009. 39(10): p. 1607-16.
Morrison, P.D. and J.M. Stone, Synthetic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol elicits schizophrenia-like negative symptoms which are distinct from sedation. Hum Psychopharmacol, 2011. 26(1): p. 77-80.
Lev-Ran, S., et al., The association between cannabis use and depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychol Med, 2014. 44(4): p. 797-810.
Pacek, L.R., S.S. Martins, and R.M. Crum, The bidirectional relationships between alcohol, cannabis, co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use disorders with major depressive disorder: results from a national sample. J Affect Disord, 2013. 148(2-3):95.188-95.
Moir, D., et al., A comparison of mainstream and sidestream marijuana and tobacco cigarette smoke produced under two machine smoking conditions. Chem Res Toxicol, 2008. 21(2): p. 494-502.
Lee, M.L., M. Novotny, and K.D. Bartle, Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometric studies of carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in tobacco and marijuana smoke condensates. Anal Chem, 1976. 48(2): p. 405-16.
Sparacino, C.M., P.A. Hyldburg, and T.J. Hughes, Chemical and Biological Analysis of Marijuana Smoke Condensate, U.S.D.o.H.a.H. Services, Editor. 1990.
Gieringer, D., J. St. Laurent, and S. Goodrich, Cannabis Vaporizer Combines Efficient Delivery of THC with Effective Suppression of Pyrolytic Compounds. Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, 2004. 4(1).
Tashkin, D.P., et al., Respiratory symptoms and lung function in habitual heavy smokers of marijuana alone, smokers of marijuana and tobacco, smokers of tobacco alone, and nonsmokers. Am Rev Respir Dis, 1987. 135(1): p. 209-16.
Tashkin, D.P., et al., Subacute effects of heavy marihuana smoking on pulmonary function in healthy men. N Engl J Med, 1976. 294(3): p. 125-9. Aldington, S., et al., Effects of cannabis on pulmonary structure, function and symptoms. Thorax, 2007. 62(12): p. 1058-63.
Hancox, R.J., et al., Effects of cannabis on lung function: a population-based cohort study. Eur Respir J, 2010. 35(1): p. 42-7.
Sherrill, D.L., et al., Respiratory effects of non-tobacco cigarettes: a longitudinal study in general population. Int J Epidemiol, 1991. 20(1): p. 132-7.
Bloom, J.W., et al., Respiratory effects of non-tobacco cigarettes. Br Med J (Clin ResEd), 1987. 295(6612): p. 1516-8.
Roth, M.D., et al., Airway inflammation in young marijuana and tobacco smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 1998. 157(3 Pt 1): p. 928-37.
Moore, B.A., et al., Respiratory effects of marijuana and tobacco use in a U.S. sample. J Gen Intern Med, 2005. 20(1): p. 33-7.
Taylor, D.R., et al., The respiratory effects of cannabis dependence in young adults. Addiction, 2000. 95(11): p. 1669-77.
Mittleman, M.a., et al., Triggering Myocardial Infarction by Marijuana. Circulation, 2001. 103(23): p. 2805-2809.
Jouanjus, E., et al., Cannabis use: signal of increasing risk of serious cardiovascular disorders. J Am Heart Assoc, 2014. 3(2): p. E000638.
Hartman, R.L. and M.a. Huestis, Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clinical chemistry, 2013. 59(3): p. 478-92.
Asbridge, M., J.a. Hayden, and J.L. Cartwright, Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: systematic review of observational studies and metaanalysis.
BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 2012. 344(February): p. e536-e536.
Lowenstein, S.R. and J. Koziol-McLain, Drugs and Traffic Crash Responsibility: A Study of Injured Motorists in Colorado. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 2001. 50(2): p. 313-320.
Laumon, B., et al., Cannabis intoxication and fatal road crashes in France: population based case-control study. BMJ, 2005. 331(7529): p. 1371.
Drummer, O.H., et al., The involvement of drugs in drivers of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 2004. 36(2): p. 239-248.
The following is a list of verified internet resources used in the curricula:
Text messaging statistics
mj and dropping out
Exercise and the brain
marijuana and risky sexual behavior
Athlete Awareness related resources:
Alternative to Suspension:
This element was adapted from the University of Washington’s School of Social Work’s Teen Marijuana Check Up